CCTV stands for Closed-Circuit Television.
This is a closed-circuit system because the signal is not openly transmitted as it is with broadcast television. The video cameras transmit the footage back to a set number of monitors.
Television in CCTV is the video camera which acts as the telecommunication medium which transmits moving images to the surveillance monitors.
CCTV is a video system in which specifically placed cameras record video images and transmit these to a monitor/monitors, with only a small number of people being able to access it.
CCTV systems are primarily used for security, monitoring and surveillance purposes.
In terms of security, CCTV can be used to monitor both public and property security.
For monitoring and surveillance purposes, CCTV can be used to for investigation or crime prevention.
CCTV is legal when it complies with guidelines set out by the law.
If you own the home property, you do not require permission to install CCTV, but do need to alert neighbours. If you do not own the property, you will have to speak to the landlord.
According to the government, if your business requires CCTV, people must be told that they are being recorded.
You must get a license from the Security Industry Authority (SIA) if you work as an operative (or supply operatives under a contract for services) who uses closed circuit television (CCTV) equipment to:
• monitor the activities of a member of the public in a public or private place
• identify a particular person
The application for a SIA licence costs £220, including £49 VAT.
CCTV is important because:
– It can deter crime
– It can be used as evidence, and therefore acts as a force of law enforcement
– It can monitor employers, and encourage greater work productivity
– It can lower costs by preventing burglary
– It can be used for the safety of others; e.g helping track lost people, monitoring workers operating in dangerous conditions.
A CCTV system consists of a camera, lens, monitor and recorder.
The camera/cameras pick up the images, which are then transmitted then to a recording device and then a monitor.
• Dome CCTV Camera
• Bullet CCTV Camera
• Infrared/Night Vision CCTV
• Network/IP CCTV
• Wireless CCTV Camera
• High-Definition HD CCTV
• Thermal Heat detection CCTV cameras
Walter Bruch invented the first CCTV in 1942 during WW2 in Germany. The purpose of the CCTV was to monitor the V-2 rockets. CCTV technology became a commercial product from 1949 onwards.
Infrared (IR) cameras detect heat (infrared energy). This is converted into an electrical signal which then produces a thermal image. Infrared light is emitted from the IR LEDs which are positioned around then lens of the camera.
An Infrared bullet camera with inbuilt infrared Lights
An Internet protocol camera is a digital video camera that sends and receives data via a computer network. This differs from a CCTV camera, which can only send and receive signals through a cable connected to a DVR.
This varies according to the number of CCTV units installed, and the type of CCTV installed.
It all depends on the size of the house and number of cameras. we would always recommend a full site survey.
Depending on system type and number of cameras it can vary from approximately £20 a year for a domestic to hundreds for a very large commercial system.
Yes, all CCTV cameras require a power supply. CCTV systems are normally powered by a power box or power adaptor. IP Cameras are normally power over Ethernet (PoE) technology using Cat5 or Cat6 cables.
Some CCTVs might be battery operated or even solar
A sequence of images is picked up on by the camera, which is transmitted as a signal that passes on to recording device and display device. The camera itself captures the video source. At the front of the camera is an opened aperture, and this is what captures the light stream through the lens. The light stream is captured by a digital chip inside the camera and turned into a sequence of images. This camera records this sequence of image and transmits either by cable or wirelessly.
Data protection rules do not apply if you install a camera on your own home to protect it from Burglary
If you have a CCTV installed at commercial property, you are required to install appropriate signage .
Find out more by reading about CCTV data protection on the government website.
Most CCTV cameras do not record audio, but some have the ability too.
The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has declared that recording audio on CCTV is intrusive and unnecessary.
Read more on the ICO website.
CCTV is personal data according to General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), and therefore those installing it must give a sound reason for having it installed.
This depends on the number of cameras you would like to have installed.
The location and accessibility to them. We always recommend a full site survey be undertaken
This depends on the camera cable you choose.
An RG59 coax cable can extend up 600 ft and an RG6 cable can extend up to 1000 ft.
Huge distances can be covered by Fibre transmission
31 days is still recommended by the police. But in reality you should make your own decision on retention times
Coaxial cable for analogue and HDCVI.
Cat5 and Cat6 for IP systems.
Not all coaxial cable should be used for CCTV camera installations. RG59 coax cable is the industry standard and best choice for CCTV systems and HD over coax systems.
But more commonly Cat5 and Cat6 is now used for IP cameras.y
Yes, this can be used to connect cameras for both IP systems and analogue via Balan’s.
An RG59 coax ca can run up to 600 feet other larger cables can run longer distances
No. not all security systems need WIFI. Most are directly cabled
Yes, wireless cameras can slow down a network but not significantly.
Wireless cameras are no different to wired cameras, they still need to be plugged into an electrical outlet.
Pan is the physical movement of the camera from side to side. Short for panning
A pan-tilt-zoom camera, which allows the camera to be remotely controlled to move or zoom in.
DVR is short for digital video recorder, which is where video footage from the CCTV is stored.
The DVR is the computer that saves footage onto the hard drive, USB drive, SD memory card or SSD.
A CCTV system can continue to work, but playback will not be possible
There are lots of ways to connect your recording device to either Wifi or the internet, each method will depend largely on the recording device you have.
A Network Video Recorder records video in digital format. Unlike a DVR, the input if from a network instead of a video capture card. Video is encoded and processed at the camera, and then streamed to the NVR.
NVR can work without internet.
A Network Video Recorder records IP cameras whilst an Digital Video Recorder are known for recording analogue video from coax cameras. The image quality is normally higher on the IP cameras.
This all depends on how many cameras you will have connected and how long you wish to record for.
RG6 can be run a longer distance without video loss.
RG59 is a thinner cable in comparison, and easier to work with.
You do not require planning permission, unless you are installing CCTV in a listed building or conservation area.
Yes. The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) sate that CCTV cameras can only be used when it is a necessity and should be ‘proportionate response to a real and pressing problem.”
The Data Protection Act (DPA) does not state that employers are not allowed to monitor employees with CCTV. However, staff must be alerted to the fact that they are being recorded.
This would depend on the type of camera and storage specified
This will depend on the image rate and size of the video files but on a low setting you could expect 18 days
This is covered under the data protection act of 1998, it will only apply to businesses and organisations and not domestic homes.
Security cameras use on average between 4 to 6 watts a day.
CCTV cameras rely on a power supply, therefore no. Unless it is a battery-operated CCTV camera.
Yes, providing that the CCTV camera has a means of transmitting a signal to the DVR or NVR, it can work without an internet connection.
31 days is recommended still by the police .
No, the new Code states:
“1.15 When a relevant authority has licensing functions and considers the use of surveillance camera systems as part of the conditions attached to a licence or certificate, it must in particular have regard to guiding principle one in this code. Any proposed imposition of a blanket requirement to attach surveillance camera conditions as part of the conditions attached to a licence or certificate is likely to give rise to concerns about the proportionality of such an approach and will require an appropriately strong justification and must be kept under regular review. Applications in relation to licensed premises must take into account the circumstances surrounding that application and whether a requirement to have a surveillance camera system is appropriate in that particular case. For example, it is unlikely that a trouble-free community pub would present a pressing need such that a surveillance camera condition would be justified. In such circumstances where a licence or certificate is granted subject to surveillance camera system conditions, the consideration of all other guiding principles in this code is a matter for the licensee as the system operator.”
Read the document here.
Certain essentials in the law of evidence must always be considered when utilizing digital video images:
There are many approved manufacturer APPs that allow you to view your CCTV footage on portable devices
The British Security Industry Association (BSIA) estimated there to be 4-5.8 million cameras in 2015
Generally CCTV cameras are low voltage often 12 – 24 volt.
A CCTV operator is responsible for watching the monitors linked to the surveillance cameras installed around the premises. Their duty is to watch out for and report suspicious behaviour from and recorded footage.
This depends on how long the company chooses to keep the footage.
If the footage is being used in a criminal case it may be archived indefinitely
Yes, you can. Find out more by visiting the government website.
Yes, providing the employees are aware of it. There is no law which states that surveillance cannot be used within the workplace.
Yes, it can be directly connect to a recording device without any internet connection
It is generally believed to be the UK. With 1% of the worlds population but 20% of it CCTV Cameras
This depends on the storage capacity of the DVR/NVR, which is the choice of the purchaser.
There are many approved manufacturer APPs that allow you to view your CCTV footage on portable devices.
This depends on the purpose of the CCTV.
There are many good quality CCTV manufactures with exceptional products.
CCTV with night time capabilities can. These cameras can pick up infrared light and convert this into an image.
The main difference is the way the signal is sent Analogue systems turn the signal into a format a Video recorder or tv screen can receive. The IP camera digitises the signal and sends it out via packets over a network connection.
IP Cameras offer superior video quality, video analytic features and scalability.
The main difference is that the IP camera will have more features and a higher image quality than the IP camera
It all depends on the type of camera installed
Analogue High Definition which uses a coax cable to transmit HD video footage from CCTV to DVRs. It supports 720P AND 1080p HD video resolutions.
First assign the DVR an IP address, and then connect it to the Local Area network (LAN). Set up port forwarding on your router, then set up a static DHCP Ip address for the DVR. Configure a dynamic DNS account, set up a dynamic dns on your router, then set up remote internet connection.
Some newer systems are equipped with P2P that only requires the scanning of a QR code to connect to the system.
Some DVR’s have built in WIFI some do not. You would need to check your specific model.
No, they only need to be connected to a power supply.
There are several ways in which this can be done.
A DVR box can be connected to a TV set by a HDMI Cable, DVI Cable, component cables and s-video cable.
HDMI – Turn off TV and DVR. Connect the DMI cable to HDMI out port of the DVR Box. Turn on DVR and TV, and these will no be connected. On the TV screen you should have option to select HDMI.
DVI Cable – Turn of TV and DRVR. Plug in the DVI end of HDMI-to-DVI cable the DVI port at the side or back of your TV. Connect the audio cables to the TV and the DVR. Switch on TV and DRVR, and select “HDMI 1” as input source.
Component Cables – ensure TV and DVR are turned off. Connect the component cable’s green, blue and red connectors into the matching ports of the TV. Connect the other colour coded component cable’s connectors into the DVRs matching out ports. Next step – connect the audio cable into the TV using an audio cable. Plug the other end of the audio cable into the DVR. Switch on the TV and DVR and select HDMI 1 as an option.
S-Video Cable – turn off TV and DVR. Connect S-video cable to TV into the S-video in port, then connect the other end of cable into the S-video out port on the back of DVR. Next step – connect the audio cable to the TV and then attach the other end of audio cable into the DVR. Select HDMI 1.
TVI allows for the transition of high quality video footage over traditional cabling (Cat5, Cat5, RG59, UTP).
High Definition Composite Video Interface.
TVI stands for Transport video interface
CVBS stands for Composite Video Blanking and Sync, which is the traditional analogue signal delivered to the DVR.
An RCA connector carries audio and video signals.
CVBS stands for Composite Video Blanking Sync. Often referred to as SD Video or standard definition
A high definition camera
High Definition transport video Interface
There are many APPS available and your NVR/DVR instructions will explain the best one to use or even give you a link to their own APP.
This is simply installed and then configured as per the manufacturer’s instructions
Serial Digital Interface is the standard for digital video transmission over coaxial cable.
Pan tilt and zoom. The ability of the camera to move around and zoom in and out.
Composite Video Blanking and Sync often simply referred to as SD (standard definition)
Analogue High Definition.
AHD Cameras use coax cable for the transmission of HD videos to DVRs.
High Definition Composite Video Interface. This technology allows for a higher resolution.
An HD-SDI camera captures 1080p resolution (1920 x 1080) video footage
Focal length is expressed in millimetres and is the distance of the lens from the image sensor. The smaller the number the wider the field of view will be. A zoom lens will have 2 numbers a lower number and an upper number.